Models for long-term prognosis of contaminant leaching and transport Long-term impact assessment of mining waste disposal sites and engineering constructions on the aquatic environment constitutes a basis for the step-by-step approach to the decisions concerning optimum dump location and construction, as well as preventive or remedial measures for control of contaminant leaching from new and old dumping sites and engineering constructions.
Readers are encouraged to send comments and ideas for the next edition to: The other is the Facilitator's Manual, An impact assessment of science and contains the guidance, materials, and handouts required for facilitating the course.
The text and course are designed for policy makers from government, academia, public life, and environmental and industrial organizations, broadly designed for use by anyone interested in an Environmental Impact Assessment program, in any culture.
The course was prepared in by the U. It is based upon internationally accepted principles and frameworks as well as 25 years of experience within USEPA implementing its EIA program, as well as the input from many colleagues around the world.
Agency for International Development. Modest revisions to the course materials were designed by USEPA in response to comments of course facilitators from all EPA Regions and participants from over a dozen countries over the past five years.
Introduction What is the Purpose of This Text? Section Environmental Review Process Categories of Potential Secondary Impacts Table Data Management System Elements Table They have developed or are developing legislative, procedural, and technical strategies for assessing the potential environmental changes caused by: The common goal of these various environmental laws, procedures, and regulations is to establish a substantive environmental policy that protects natural resources, environmental quality, and public and ecological health and better integrates economic, social and environmental goals.
Integral to this goal are systematic procedures for environmental impact assessment El A. Most strategies of EIA derive from statutory requirements that must be addressed in planning for large and small projects that could, if constructed and operated, change the nature or quality of environmental resources, both natural and man-made.
An EIA program converts the language and intent of fundamental environmental laws and policies into a uniform set of procedural and technical requirements that permit a systematic review of proposed actions well before those actions are implemented.
In this regard, EIA is both an early warning process and a continuing review process that protects sensitive environmental resources from unwarranted or unanticipated damage. This text has been prepared to help individuals responsible for environmental protection and impact assessment in different countries, regions, and localities design and implement programs of EIA and to help others participate in the process as reviewers and commentors.
It is intended to provide general and specific guidance in the principles of EIA for anyone involved in development, redevelopment, and remedial planning, including Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment EIA is an early warning system and an on-going review process.
This text is not designed to provide comprehensive technical guidance in the use of EIA tools such as air quality modeling, water quality modeling, ecological community analysis, risk assessment, or fiscal analyses.
Such methodologies are summarized in this text in terms of the types of approaches available for the assessment of environmental impacts.
In addition, references to texts or manuals that discuss the specific application of such methodologies are given in Chapter 13 of this text. The focus of this text, however, is on the internationally accepted principles that underlie sound EIA programs rather than on the specific tools or measures of impact assessment.
This text provides the following: The successful implementation of EIA procedures requires significant effort, forethought, and cooperation among many responsible parties. The incorporation of EIA into existing systems of land use planning, particularly incorporation at the early stages of such planning, often entails modifications of well-establiished procedures.
Those modifications may be modest or extensive, depending on the nature of prior planning practices. The EIA process should be systematic, reproducible and interdisciplinary. This text draws from those experiences and will be updated periodically to enrich the value of the guidance it provides.
EIA is both a decision making process, and a document that provides a systematic, reproducible, and interdisciplinary evaluation of the potential effects of a proposed action and its practical alternatives on the physical, biological, cultural, and socioeconomic attributes of a particular geographical area.
EIA is often a key component in national, regional, or local facilities planning and land use planning.
The purpose is to assure that important environmental resources are recognized early in the planning process and protected through proper planning and decision-making.
The EIA analysis should be systematic to assure that all feasible alternatives that would meet the basic purpose and need of the proposal are considered and compared, that relevant environmental resources are described and evaluated, and that all measures that could protect those resources are given full consideration in the planning process.
The EIA should be reproducible to permit independent verification of the findings and conclusions presented in the EIA document. The EIA should be interdisciplinary to ensure that experts in the relevant physical, biological, cultural, and socioeconomic disciplines contribute their expertise to the overall assessment so that the evaluation of resources and impacts is comprehensive and accurate.
As a decision-making process, EIA provides a means for all stakeholders in an action to be heard and to participate in the process of selection of alternatives and mitigation of adverse impacts.These changes were completed with the assistance of Science Applications International Corporation under EPA Contract No.
W in Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment Compensation for adverse impacts is less desirable than avoiding the impacts altogether. The selection of the preferred alternative is an analytical and. At the Commonwealth level, impact assessment uses the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to identify environmental values that may be impacted, the nature and extent of impacts; measures to be taken in the location, design, construction and operation of the development to avoid and mitigate adverse impacts; and conditions of approval.
Within the framework of multidisciplinary strategic environmental impact assessment of aviation, this paper examines the applicability of existing simplified airport noise models and discusses their intrinsic limitations and advantages.
On the basis of the limited information available, our assessment indicates that amine-based scrubbing results in a fold increase in toxic impact on freshwater ecosystems and a minor increase in toxic impacts on terrestrial ecosystems.
The themes of uncertainty, extremes and climate and health contain key research gaps in advancing climate impact assessment science. However, in order for any scientific information to be useful in decision-making it must be credible, legitimate, and salient in the decision context at hand . Policy brief: Impact assessment - bridging science and decisions.
Whenever a policy decision is made, it can be presumed that decision-makers have made an assessment of potential impacts.