Clandestine cultures

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Clandestine cultures

In Spanish, the official language, the country is called Guinea Ecuatorial Orientation Identification.

Culture Name

As a Spanish colony, the area was formerly known as Spanish Guinea. There are two main cultural and ethnic traditions: Equatorial Guinea is on the west coast of equatorial Africa, bordered by Cameroon to the north and Gabon to the south and east. The country's total area is 10, square miles 28, square kilometers; slightly smaller than the state of Maryland.

The larger of these is Bioko, formerly known as Fernando Po. It lies 25 miles 40 kilometers off the coast of Cameroon, across a bay of the Gulf of Guinea known as the Bight of Biafra, to the northwest of the continental portion of the country.

Bioko has three extinct volcanic cones, which contain several crater lakes. Mangrove swamps lie along the Clandestine cultures of the Clandestine cultures.

Clandestine cultures

However, the wildlife population has suffered greatly as a result of hunting. As ofthe population is ,—80 percent of whom live on the mainland, and of that group, 90 percent are Fang. The original inhabitants of Bioko are of a group called Bubi, descendants of mainland Bantu tribes.

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Bioko also is home to descendants of former slaves who were freed in the nineteenth century. There is a small group of Europeans fewer than one thousandmost of them Spanish. Spanish and French are the official languages of Equatorial Guinea, although a very small percentage of the population speaks either of them.

Pidgin English is also used as a lingua franca, particularly on Bioko. Most people's daily lives are conducted in tribal languages, either Fang, Bubi, or Ibo, all of which are in the Bantu family of languages.

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The coat of arms which is depicted on the flag has six yellow six-pointed stars, which stand for the mainland and the five islands that comprise the country. It also includes a picture of a silk-cotton tree. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. People of the Pygmy and the Ndowe tribes were the first inhabitants of the area that is today the mainland of Equatorial Guinea.

Bantu peoples began to arrive in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, beginning an ongoing history of tribal wars. The Fang, the most prevalent and warlike of these tribes, predominated.

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the slave trade by the British, French, and Dutch pushed the Fang inland, away from the coast. In the thirteenth century, the Bubi settled on the island of Bioko. The Portuguese arrived in the fifteenth century and named the island Fernando Po.

Bioko was important as a slave trade center, thanks to flourishing cocoa plantations there, and was one of Spain's most profitable territories in Africa.

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However, the island was administered by the English from untilat which point the Spanish takeover became official. Spanish rule of the mainland did not begin officially untildespite their long-standing claim to the area.

The country experienced increasing prosperity with the aid of the Spanish government and the Catholic Church. Industry grew, and cocoa and timber contributed to a strong economy. Independence was declared in However, when Spain pulled out, they left the country in dire straits; violence and economic upheaval ensued, and the fledgling nation declared a state of emergency.

The first president, Macias Nguema, ruled as a dictator for eleven years, outlawing all political parties but his own. In he declared himself ruler for life, presiding over a regime that killed and tortured thousands of its own citizens.Shooting at the Moon: The Story of America's Clandestine War in Laos [Roger Warner] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

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