Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Cash and Tracy L. Rabin Program on Ethical Issues in International Health Research Department of Population and International Health Harvard School of Public Health This paper identifies major ethical issues in longitudinal health research and demographic and health data collection and analysis, specifically as they are related to research conducted in developing countries.
A discussion of general ethical principles for health research and questions of community-based ethics is followed by a description of the benefits and risks of longitudinal health research, with special reference to the issues of informed consent, confidentiality, and researcher responsibilities to the host community.
This set of principles was first formalized in the Belmont Report, the final product of the U. This commission was charged with identifying the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research using human subjects and then developing guidelines to ensure that such research is conducted in accordance with the basic principles.
Since the release of the Belmont Report, the import of these four principles has become recognized internationally.
Leveraging Longitudinal Data in Developing Countries: Report of a Workshop. The National Academies Press. Contending that good scientific research is not necessarily ethical research, Emanuel et al. Each of these principles also applies to community-based studies and data collection and requires that community needs and values be considered along with those of the individual.
The ICMR proposed that 12 general principles be considered in designing research projects involving human subjects: These sets of formally articulated ethical principles cover a wide spectrum, ranging from but not limited to the four broad principles of the Belmont Report to the more specific set of twelve principles provided by the ICMR.
The variation in the items on these lists demonstrates that no single list of principles has authority over others, although some are cited more often.
It is instructive to examine the application of these principles in the context of the different international guidelines that have been published over the past 40 years. Page 77 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Government Printing Office, Unlike the German doctors in the trials at Nuremberg, however, many of the Japanese perpetrators were released by the U.
Army in exchange for their data. The World Medical Association, founded in as an independent confederation of medical associations worldwide, adopted the Declaration of Helsinki as its organizational policy on ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects in World Medical Assembly, This document was, historically, the follow-up to the Nuremberg Code, although it was intended primarily to govern physician-researchers, not researchers in general.
The Declaration of Helsinki is not itself a legally binding document, and it has undergone five revisions since it was first adopted. The most recent revision was adopted in October and is composed of 32 standalone clauses World Medical Association, CIOMS has three main objectives: These guidelines are designed to aid in the development of national poli- Page 78 Share Cite Suggested Citation: They are intended for all people not just physicians who face the ethical issues that arise in the course of epidemiological research, including scientific investigators, health policy-makers, and ethical review committee members.
The International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences,originally published by CIOMS in and presently undergoing revisions, replaced a set of proposed guidelines that were intended to elucidate how to apply effectively the ethical principles set forth in the Declaration of Helsinki, with particular attention to research conducted in developing countries.
The International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects are designed for use in developing national policies on ethical biomedical research and mechanisms for ethical review of research using human subjects.
National Bioethics Advisory Commission, Mar 27, · The Ethics Of Big Data. But, experts say, companies can collect and analyze confidential data in a way that doesn't alarm their customers or compromise privacy.
All . practices encompassing data collection, analysis, and distribution, researchers have expressed a growing concern with the ethical implica- ethical implications of such practices (Morse & Pooler, ; Schuck & Kearney, ).
Others have argued that contemporary technologies. Focuses on ethical issues that can arise in the collection and analysis of data in evaluations. Addresses four issues: (1) the application of cost-benefit thinking to judgments about research ethics, (2) the quality of research design, (3) the need to explore the data, and (4) the censoring of data.
Legal and Ethical Implications Harvesting social media raises legal and ethical issues that must undergo careful consideration and risk assessment before the creation of a collecting program.
The legal challenges faced involve social media user rights, whereas the ethical challenges concentrate on a larger question: just because we can archive.
Suggested Citation:"Overview of Ethical Issues in Collecting Data in Developing Countries, with Special Reference to Longitudinal Designs." National Research Council. National Research Council. Oct 03, · A rich and growing body of literature has emerged on ethics in epidemiologic research and public health practice.
Recent articles have included conceptual frameworks of public health ethics and overviews of historical developments in the field.
and are not necessarily the optimal approach for analyzing ethical issues in public.