International Public Library Subject Specific software e. Check out public and university libraries, businesses, government agencies, as well as contact knowledgeable people in your community.
Although you should use these citation formats in this and other biology courses, specific formats vary considerably for individual journals.
If you are trying to publish a paper in a specific journal, you will be Site book research paper to follow the format of that journal. That system will not be presented here, but you should expect to encounter it in your reading of the literature. A complete listing of citation formats for published materials may be found in Huth et al Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussionwhenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.
The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e. Provide a reference to the work as soon as possible after giving the information.
Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red: Click and Clack demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly.
The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status Anon. Typically, only the last name of the author s and the year of publication are given,e. Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there. Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book not done for journal articles.
The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble. For two author papers, give both authors' last names e. Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al.
When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author, cite it as Anon. If you want reference a paper found in another article, do so as follows: Driblickin Oobleck A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e. Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e.
Theses and dissertatons should be cited as follows: A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse Mus musculus in Nome, Alaska.
Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. WWW citation should be done with caution since so much is posted without peer review. When necessary, report the complete URL in the text including the site author's name: Ohio State University Library has a good webpage for citing web sources:Each of these conventions for research paper structure have their own guidelines on how to cite a research paper.
Very often, the Harvard style of citation may be used for articles which make use of several separate pages of a resource book.
How to Cite a Book in Print in MLA. The basic information of a book includes author(s), the title of the book, and the publication information. Writing a Research Paper. This page lists some of the stages involved in writing a library-based research paper.
Although this list suggests that there is a simple, linear process to writing such a paper, the actual process of writing a research paper is often a messy and recursive one, so . In fact, this guide is designed to help you navigate the research voyage, through developing a research question and thesis, doing the research, writing the paper, and correctly documenting your sources.
This resource contains a sample MLA paper that adheres to the updates. To download the MLA sample paper, select the MLA Sample Paper PDF file in the Media box above.
Plagiarism is a serious issue and the consequences can be severe. In educational institutions, research papers are often checked with anti-plagiarism software, and students are expected to follow specific style guidelines given by the instructor.